According to a popular textbook on race and ethnicity by Joseph F. Healey, 62% of white Americans are racists, meaning people who harbor hostile feelings toward minority groups. He concludes this based on General Social Survey (GSS) data which indicate that 50% of whites believe that blacks are poorer than other groups because they are not trying hard enough, plus the 12% who feel that blacks are less intelligent. The latter answer is a measure of traditional racism, while the former is the modern, covert type. Both are ways that whites express the hostility they have for minorities.
It's strange that these race scholars choose the "reason for poverty" question as a measure of hostility. Why not use the GSS question that actually inquires abouts one's feelings?
GSS respondents were asked, "In general, how warm or cool do you feel towards African Americans?" Answer-choices range from "very warm" (1) to "very cool" (9).
The problem with this question is that only 1.2% of whites answered "very cool." That's not nearly enough white racists to warrant calling America a racist country. Well, maybe a 7 or 8 indicates a dislike of blacks too. 2.1% gave a 7 and 0.6% gave an 8, giving a grand total of 3.9%. Heck, let's be generous and say those who gave a middle-of-the-road six are haters too. Add 3% to 3.9%, and you're still left with an uninspiring 6.9% of whites being bigots.
I can see why sociologists stick with the "reasons for poverty" question. Because they're impartial scientists, I mean.