In Handbook of Crime Correlates, Lee Ellis and colleagues review hundreds of studies and summarize the results. Here are some interesting findings:
1. Thirty-two studies fail to find a clear difference between males and females in partner violence. Evidently women hit just as often; men just hit harder.
2. While police data show higher arrest rates for Hispanics and especially blacks compared to whites, self-reported crime differences are not consistent (322 studies). This is not really a problem. Self-report studies capture minor crime while arrest data taps more serious crime. Similar to the gender gap, whites, blacks, and Hispanics don't differ much on minor offenses. Clear differences emerge as crimes become more serious.
3. Seventy-eight self-report and arrest studies show unequivocally that American Indians (AIs) have higher crime rates than whites. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that since AIs have not lived under violence-suppressing states for as many centuries as other populations, they have not been "tamed" to the same extent.
4. Whites are more criminal than East Asians--at least according to police data (37 studies).
5. Crime rates of whites and South Asians do not differ signficantly (16 studies).
6. Oceanic Islanders are more criminal than whites (25 studies).
7. Areas with more taverns, liquor stores, and alcohol consumption have higher crime rates (26 studies).
8. Crime rates are higher in areas with more gambling and tourism establishments (11 studies).
9. Crime rates are higher in areas where religious membership is low (12 studies).
10. Regions closer to the equator have more crime (35 studies).
11. Later-borns are more criminal than first-borns (12 studies).
12. People with more friends are less criminal (25 studies).
13. Employed teens are more delinquent (19 studies).
14. Religious people are less criminal (112 studies).
15. People with orthodox religious beliefs are less criminal (18 studies).
16. Jews are less criminal than non-Jews (28 studies).
17. People with more sex partners are more criminal (39 studies).
18. Teens who have sex for the first time at younger ages are more delinquent (23 studies).
19. People who have more tolerant attitudes toward crime and drugs are more criminal (34 studies).
20. People with defiant and rebellious attitudes are more criminal (46 studies).
Many of these findings make perfect sense to a social conservative.
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